Charles R. Rinaldo, Jr., PhD
Professor of Pathology

Dr. Rinaldo is a member of the Division of Clinical Microbiology and the Director of the UPMC Clinical Virology Laboratory.

Office Location:
Room A912, A-Wing
UPMC Presbyterian
200 Lothrop Street
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-2582
Contact Information:
Office Telephone: 412-647-3764
Fax: 412-647-3755

Clinical Expertise

Dr. Rinaldo's UPMC Clinical Virology Laboratory is responsible for diagnosing viral infections for UPMC hospitals and clinicians. It is involved in several studies on new diagnostic approaches in clinical virology, respiratory virus infections, and the epidemiology of influenza virus infection.

Research Expertise

Dr. Rinaldo is interested in the area of AIDS and herpes virus research. He is the principal investigator of a large study of the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in homosexual men in Pittsburgh, which is part of the national Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. His research has shown that HIV-infected persons who are asymptomatic, long-term survivors have cytotoxic T lymphocytes that are greater than those detected in progressors, and that HIV load in the blood during early infection is highly predictive of developing AIDS. A major area of study is on the role of dendritic cells in the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection. Infection of these cells with HIV may be central to the progression of HIV infection and development of AIDS. These cells are being purified and characterized for their antigen-presenting functions in primary and secondary T cell responses to HIV, including clinical trials of immunotherapy of HIV infection. He has shown that CD8+ T cell responses to HIV are only temporarily enhanced during treatment with combination antiretroviral drugs, yet have broad antigenic specificity that is revealed by stimulating them with dendritic cells. Current research includes a focus on the role of regulatory T cells in HIV infection.

A further area of interest is in T cell responses to the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), termed KS associated herpesvirus or human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8). Dr. Rinaldo's laboratory has shown that CD8+ T cells mount a response to HHV-8 during primary HHV8 infection, but that this immune response is defective in those persons who are HIV-infected and go onto develop KS. His group has also discovered a novel receptor for HHV-8 infection of B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells, termed DC-SIGN.

Selected Publications

View Dr. Rinaldo's publications on PubMed

Hensler, H.R., Rappocciolo, G., Rinaldo, C.R., and Jenkins, F. J. Cytokine production by human herpesvirus 8-infected dendritic cells. J. Gen. Virol. 90:79-83, 2009.

Whiteside, T. L., Piazza, P., Reiter, A., Stanson, J., Connolly, N.C, Rinaldo, C.R., Jr., Riddler, S.A. Preparation of DC-based vaccine containing inactivated autologous virus for therapy of patients with chronic HIV-1 infection. Clin. Vacc. Immunol.16:233-240, 2009.

Gasser, O., Bihl, F., Sanghavi, S., Rinaldo, C., Rowe, D., Hess, C., Stablein, D., Roland, M., Stock, P., and Brander, C. Treatment-dependent loss of polyfunctional CD8+ T-cell responses in HIV-infected kidney transplant recipients is associated with herpesvirus reactivation. Amer. J. Transplant. 9:794-803, 2009.

Uyeki, T.M., Prasad, R., Vukotich, C., Stebbins, S., Rinaldo, C.R., Ferng,Y-H., Morse, S.S., Larson, E.L., Aiello, A.E., Davis, B., and Monto, A.S. Low rapid influenza diagnostic test sensitivity. Clin. Infect. Dis. 48:e89-92, 2009.

Colleton, B.A., Huang, X-L., Melhem, N.M., Fan, Z., Borowski, L., Rappocciolo, G., and Rinaldo, C.R. Primary HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cell responses induced by myeloid dendritic cells. J. Virol. 83:6288-6299, 2009.

Huang, X-L., Fan, Z., Borowski, L. and Rinaldo, C.R., Multiple T cell responses to HIV-1 are enhanced by dendritic cells. Clin. Vacc. Immunol.16:1504-1516, 2009.

Chakrabarti, A.K., Caruso, L., Ding, M., Shen, C., Buchanan, W., Gupta, P., Rinaldo, C.R., and Chen, Y. Detection of HIV-1 RNA/DNA and CD4 mRNA in feces and urine from chronic HIV-1 infected subjects with and without anti-retroviral therapy. AIDS Res. Ther. 6:20, 2009.

Herbeck J.T., Gottlieb, G.S., Wong, K., Detels, R., Phair, J.P., Rinaldo, C.R., Jacobson, L.P., Margolick, J.B., and Mullins, J.I. Fidelity of SNP array genotyping using Epstein Barr virus-transformed B-lymphocyte cell lines: implications for genome-wide association studies. PLoS One 4:e6915, 2009.

Asmuth, D.M., Murphy, R.L., Rosenkranz, S.L., Lertora, J.J.L., Kottilil, S., Cramer, Y., Chan, E.S., Schooley R.T., Rinaldo, C.R., Thielman, N., Li, X-D., Wahl, S.M., Shore, J., Janik, J., Lempicki, R.A., Simpson, Y., Pollard, R.B. for the ACTG A5192. Safety, tolerability and mechanisms of antiretroviral activity of peginterferon alfa-2a in HIV-1-mono-infected subjects: A phase II clinical trial. J. Infect. Dis. 201:1686-1696, 2010.

Margolick, J.B., Da Costa Castro, J.M., Sanchez, A., Gemrot, F., Phair, J.P., Jamieson, B.D., Rinaldo, C.R., and Jacobson, L.P. The relationship between antibody to R7V and progression of HIV-1 infection. AIDS Res. Hum. Retro. 26:389-394, 2010.

Macatangay, B.J.C., Szajnik, M. E. Whiteside, T. L., Riddler, S.A., and Rinaldo, C.R. Regulatory T cell suppression of Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell polyfunctional response following therapeutic vaccination of HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. PloSONE 5: e9852, 2010. Selected as a "Must read" by the Faculty of 1000 Medicine, April, 2010.

Macatangay, B.J.C., Zheng, L., Rinaldo, C.R., Landay, A.L., Pollard, R.B., Pahwa, S., Lederman, M.M., and Bucy, R.P. Comparison of immunologic assays for detecting immune responses in HIV immunotherapeutic studies: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Trial A5181. Clin. Vacc. Immunol. 17:1452-1459, 2010.

Cook, R., Xu, X., Yablonsky, E., Sakata, N., Tripp, J., Sejvar, J., Hess, R., Piazza, P., and Rinaldo, C.R. Demographic and clinical factors associated with persistent symptoms after West Nile virus infection. Amer. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 83:1133-1136, 2010.

Huang, X.L., Fan, Z., Borowski, L., Mailliard, R.B., Rolland, M., Mullins, J.I., Day, R.D., and Rinaldo, C.R. Dendritic cells reveal a broad range of MHC class I epitopes for human immunodeficiency virus type 1. PloSONE 5:e12936, 2010.

Lepone, L., Rappocciolo, G., *Knowlton, E., Jais, M., Piazza, P., Jenkins, F.J., and Rinaldo, C.R. Monofunctional and polyfunctional CD8+ T cell responses to human herpesvirus 8 lytic and latency proteins. Clin. Vacc. Immunol. 17:1507-1516, 2010.

Piazza, P., McMurtrey, C.P., Lelic, A., Cook, R.L., Hess, R., Yablonsky, E., Borowski, L., Stojka, K., Loeb, M.B., Bramson, J.L., Hildebrand, W.H., and Rinaldo, C.R. Surface phenotype and functionality of WNV specific T cells differ with age and disease severity. PLoS One 5:e15343, 2010.

Stebbins, S., Stark, J.H., Prasad, R., Thompson, W.W., Mitruka, K., Rinaldo, C., Vukotich, C.J., Jr., and Cummings, D.A.T. Sensitivity and specificity of rapid influenza testing of children in a community setting. Influenza Other Resp. Vir. 5:104-109, 2011.

Mullins J, Cook RL, Yablonsky E, Hess R, Rinaldo CR, Piazza P. Influenza like illness among university students: Symptom severity and duration due to influenza virus infection compared to other etiologies. Am J College Health 59: 246 - 251, 2011.

Regidor, D.L., Detels, R., Breen, E.C., Widney, D.P., Jacobson, L.P.; Palella, F., Rinaldo, C., Bream, J.H., Martinez-Maza, O. Effect of highly active anti-retroviral therapy on biomarkers of B lymphocyte activation and inflammation. AIDS 25:303-314, 2011.

Rickabaugh, T., Kilpatrick, R.D., Hultin, L.E., Hultin, P.M., Hausner, M.A., Sugar, C.A., Althoff, K.N, Margolick, J.B., Rinaldo, C.R., Detels, R., Phair, J., Effros, R.B., Jamieson, B.D. The dual impact of HIV-1 infection and aging on na´ve CD4+ T-cells: Additive and distinct patterns of impairment. PloSONE 6:e16459, 2011.

Ding, M., Bullotta, A., Caruso, L., Gupta, P., Rinaldo, C., and Chen, Y. An optimized sensitive method for quantitation of DNA/RNA virus in heparinized and cryopreserved plasma. J. Virol. Meth. 176:1-8, 2011.

Breen, E.C., Hussain, S., Magpantay, L., Jacobson, L., Detels, R., Rabkin, C.S., Kaslow, R.A., Variakojis, D., Bream, J.H., Rinaldo, C., Jr., Ambinder, R., and Martinez-Maza O. B cell-stimulatory cytokines and markers of immune activation are elevated several years prior to the diagnosis of systemic AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin B cell lymphoma. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 20:1303-1314, 2011

Stebbins, S., Cummings, D.A.T., Star, J.H., Vukotic, C., Mitruka, K., Thompson, W., Rinaldo, C., Roth, L.,Wagner, M., Wisniewski, S.R., Dato, V., Eng, H., Burke, D.S. Reduction in the incidence of influenza A but not influenza B associated with use of hand sanitizer and cough hygiene in schools: a randomized controlled trial. Pediat. Infect. Dis. J. 30:921-926, 2011.

Breen, E.C., Reynolds, S.M., Cox, C., Jacobson, L.P., Magpantay, L., Mulder, C.B., Dibben, O., Margolick, J.B., Bream, J.H., Sambrano, E., MartÝnez-Maza, O., Sinclair, E., Borrow, P., Landay, A.L., Rinaldo, C.R., and Norris, P.J. Multisite comparison of high-sensitivity multiplex cytokine assays. Clin Vacc. Immunol. 18:1229-1242, 2011.

Sanghavi, S.K., Bullotta, A., Husain, S., and Rinaldo, C.R. Clinical evaluation of multiplex real time RT-PCR for rapid detection of respiratory viral infections. J. Med. Virol. 84:162-169, 2012.

Laeyendecker, O., Brookmeyer, R., Oliver, A.E., Mullis, C.E., Eaton, K.P., Mueller, A.C., Jacobson, L.P., Margolick, J.B., Brown, J., Rinaldo, C.R., Quinn, T.C., Eshleman, S.H. Factors associated with incorrect identification of recent HIV infection using the BED capture immunoassay. AIDS Res. Hum. Retro., 2011 Dec 1. [Epub ahead of print].

Spindler, J., Hackett, J., Jr., Qiu, X., Wiegand, A., Boltz, V.F., Swanson, P., Bream, J.H., Jacobson, L.P., Li, X., Rinaldo, C.R., Wolinsky, S.M., Coffin, J.M., Kearney, M.F., and Mellors, J.W. Prevalence of XMRV nucleic acid and antibody in HIV-1 infected men and in men at risk for HIV-1 infection. Adv. Virol. 2011:268214 Epub.

Thapa, D.R., Bhati, K., Bream, J.H., D'souza, G., Rinaldo, C.R., Wolinsky, S., Detels, R., and Martinez-Maza, O. B-cell activation induced microRNA-21 is elevated in circulating B cells preceding the diagnosis of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphomas. AIDS, accepted for publication.

Hechter, R. C., Budoff, M., Hodis, H.N., Rinaldo, C.R., Jenkins, F.J., Jacobson, L.P., Kingsley, L.A., Taiwo, B., Post, W.S., Margolick, J.B., and Detels, R. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) as a coronary atherosclerosis risk factor in HIV-infected men: Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. In Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available online, March 2012.